587 BC – Babylon’s siege of Jerusalem ends following the destruction of Solomon’s Temple.
1174 – William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-74, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Henry II of England.
1787 – The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It also establishes procedures for the admission of new states and limits the expansion of slavery.
1793 – Journalist and French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat is assassinated in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a member of the opposing political faction.
1863 – New York City draft riots: Opponents of conscription begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in United States history.
1878 – Treaty of Berlin: The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire.
1919 – The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.
1923 – The iconic HOLLYWOOD sign is dedicated in the Hollywood Hills, Los Angeles. It originally reads “Hollywoodland,” but the four last letters are dropped after renovation in 1949.
1962 – In an unprecedented action, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dismisses seven members of his Cabinet, marking the effective end of the National Liberals as a distinct force within British politics.
1973 – Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the “Nixon tapes” to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break-in.
1977 – New York City: Amidst a period of financial and social turmoil, the city experiences an electrical blackout lasting nearly 24 hours that leads to widespread fires and looting.
1985 – The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London and Philadelphia, as well as other venues such as Moscow and Sydney.
2003 – French DGSE personnel abort an operation to rescue Íngrid Betancourt from FARC rebels in Colombia, causing a political scandal when details are leaked to the press.
2016 – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron resigns, and is succeeded by Theresa May.
100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman military and political leader
1940 – Patrick Stewart, English actor (Star Trek Next Generation, X-men)
1944 – Erno Rubik, Hungarian inventor (Rubik’s cube)
1934 – Kate Sheppard, New Zealand suffragette and the most prominent member of New Zealand’s women’s suffrage movement