884 – King Carloman II dies after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by his cousin, emperor Charles the Fat, who for the last time reunites the Frankish Empire.
1098 – First Crusade: Siege of Ma’arrat al-Numan: Crusaders breach the town’s walls and massacre about 20,000 inhabitants. After finding themselves with insufficient food, they reportedly resort to cannibalism.
1787 – Pennsylvania becomes the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, five days after Delaware became the first.
1862 – American Civil War: USS Cairo sinks on the Yazoo River, becoming the first armored ship to be sunk by a controlled mine.
1911 – Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.
1985 – Arrow Air Flight 1285, a McDonnell Douglas DC-8, crashes after takeoff in Gander, Newfoundland, killing all 256 people on board, including 236 members of the United States Army’s 101st Airborne Division.
1745 – John Jay, First Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1829)
1849 – William Kissam Vanderbilt, American businessman and horse breeder (d. 1920)
1863 – Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter and illustrator (d. 1944)
1900 – Sammy Davis, Sr., American actor and dancer (d. 1988)
1915 – Frank Sinatra, American singer, actor, and producer (d. 1998)
1924 – Ed Koch, American lawyer, judge, and politician, 105th Mayor of New York City (d. 2013)
1927 – Robert Noyce, American inventor and businessman, co-founded the Intel Corporation (d. 1990)
1928 – Helen Frankenthaler, American painter and academic (d. 2011)
1204 – Maimonides, Egyptian religious scholar, philosopher and physician (b. 1135)
1968 – Tallulah Bankhead, American actress (b. 1902)
1999 – Joseph Heller, American novelist, short story writer, and playwright(b. 1923)
2014 – Norman Bridwell, American author and illustrator, created Clifford the Big Red Dog (b. 1928)