63 BC – Cicero gives the fourth and final of the Catiline Orations.
1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal issues a decree ordering the expulsion of “heretics” from the country.
1775 – At Fort Ticonderoga, Henry Knox begins his historic transport of artillery to Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1831 – Former U.S. President John Quincy Adams takes his seat in the House of Representatives.
1848 – In a message to the United States Congress, U.S. President James K. Polk confirms that large amounts of gold had been discovered in California.
1931 – Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow was destroyed on orders from Joseph Stalin.
1933 – The Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified.
1935 – Mary McLeod Bethune founds the National Council of Negro Women in New York City.
1952 – A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollutionand killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
1955 – E. D. Nixon and Rosa Parks lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1964 – Lloyd J. Old discovered the first linkage between the major histocompatibility complex and disease, opening the way for the recognition of the importance of the MHC in the immune response.
1977 – Egypt breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, Libya, Algeria, Iraq and South Yemen. The move is in retaliation for the Declaration of Tripoli against Egypt.
1782 – Martin Van Buren, American lawyer and politician, 8th President of the United States. Van Buren and George H. Bush were the only two vice presidents to immediately succeed the president they served by election after the ratification of the 12th amendment. Buren was one of four governors of New York to become the president, and was the first president not born a British subject or of British ancestry (d. 1862)
1896 – Carl Ferdinand Cori, Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist, and Nobel Prize laureate.
1791 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer and musician (b. 1756)
1973 – Robert Watson-Watt, Scottish engineer, invented the radar (b. 1892)
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