1704 – During the Mughal-Sikh Wars, an outnumbered Sikh Khalsa defeats a Mughal army.
1790 – The U.S. Congress moves from New York City to Philadelphia.
1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., is completed.
1897 – London becomes the world’s first city to host licensed taxicabs.
1904 – Theodore Roosevelt articulated his “Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the U.S. would intervene in the Western Hemisphere should Latin American governments prove incapable or unstable.
1917 – A munitions explosion near Halifax, Nova Scotia kills more than 1,900 people in the largest artificial explosion up to that time. SS Mont-Blanccarrying explosives from New York City to Bordeaux via Halifax, and SS Imo, a steamboat chartered by the Commission for Relief in Belgium on its way to pick up a cargo of relief supplies from New York, collide in the Narrows.
1928 – The government of Colombia sends military forces to suppress a month-long strike by United Fruit Company workers, resulting in an unknown number of deaths.
2006 – NASA reveals photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars.
1642 – Johann Christoph Bach, German organist and composer (d. 1703)
1896 – Ira Gershwin, American songwriter born in New York City to Russian immigrants (d. 1983)
1951 – Harold Ross, American journalist and publisher, founded The New Yorker (b. 1892)
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