1616 – Galileo Galilei is formally banned by the Roman Catholic Church from teaching or defending the view that the earth orbits the sun.
1815 – Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from Elba.
1876 – Japan and Korea sign a treaty granting Japanese citizens extraterritoriality rights, opening three ports to Japanese trade, and ending Korea’s status as a tributary state of Qing dynasty China.
1914 – HMS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast.
1919 – President Woodrow Wilson signs an act of Congress establishing the Grand Canyon National Park.
1929 – President Calvin Coolidge signs an executive order establishing the 96,000 acre Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming.
1935 – Adolf Hitler orders the Luftwaffe to be re-formed, violating the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.
1980 – Egypt and Israel establish full diplomatic relations.
1987 – Iran-Contra affair: The Tower Commission rebukes President Ronald Reagan for not controlling his national security staff.
1993 – World Trade Center bombing: A truck bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center explodes, killing six and injuring over a thousand.
2008 – The New York Philharmonic performs in Pyongyang, North Korea; this is the first event of its kind to take place in North Korea.
1564 – Christopher Marlowe, playwright, poet and translator (d. 1593)
1786 – Francois Arago, French mathematician and politician, 25th Prime Minister of France (d. 1853)
1802 – Victor Hugo, French author, poet, and playwright (d. 1885)
1829 – Levi Strauss, founded Levi Strauss & Co. (d. 1902)
1852 – John Harvey Kellogg, American surgeon, co-created Corn flakes (d. 1943)
Tex Avery at the Garden Diner in Battery Park City circa 1997
1908 – Tex Avery, American animator, producer, and voice actor (d. 1980) and one of the first residents of Battery Park City
1916 – Jackie Gleason, American actor and singer (d. 1987)
1920 – Tony Randall, American actor, director, and producer (d. 2004)
1932 – Johnny Cash, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor (d. 2003)
1954 – Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Turkish politician, 12th President of Turkey
1275 – Margaret of England, Queen consort of Scots (b. 1240)
1813 – Robert R. Livingston, American lawyer and politician, first United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs (b. 1746)
1961 – Mohammed V of Morocco (b. 1909)
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