910 – Battle of Augsburg: The Hungarians defeat the East Frankish army under King Louis the Child, using the famous feigned retreat tactic of the nomadic warriors.
1240 – At the instigation of Louis IX of France, an inter-faith debate, known as the Disputation of Paris, starts between a Christian monk and four rabbis.
1429 – Hundred Years’ War: Joan of Arc leads the French army in their capture of the city and the English commander, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk in the second day of the Battle of Jargeau.
1550 – The city of Helsinki, Finland (belonging to Sweden at the time) is founded by King Gustav I of Sweden.
1665 – England installs a municipal government in New York City (the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam).
1775 – American Revolution: British general Thomas Gage declares martial law in Massachusetts. The British offer a pardon to all colonists who lay down their arms. There would be only two exceptions to the amnesty: Samuel Adams and John Hancock, if captured, were to be hanged.
1939 – Shooting begins on Paramount Pictures’ Dr. Cyclops, the first horror film photographed in three-strip Technicolor.
1939 – The Baseball Hall of Fame opens in Cooperstown, New York.
1940 – World War II: Thirteen thousand British and French troops surrender to Major General Erwin Rommel at Saint-Valery-en-Caux.
1942 – Anne Frank receives a diary for her thirteenth birthday.
1963 – NAACP field secretary Medgar Evers is murdered in front of his home in Jackson, Mississippi by Ku Klux Klan member Byron De La Beckwith during the Civil Rights Movement.
1964 – Anti-apartheid activist and ANC leader Nelson Mandela is sentenced to life in prison for sabotage in South Africa.
1967 – The United States Supreme Court in Loving v. Virginia declares all U.S. state laws which prohibit interracial marriage to be unconstitutional.
1979 – Bryan Allen wins the second Kremer prize for a man-powered flight across the English Channel in the Gossamer Albatross.
1987 – Cold War: At the Brandenburg Gate U.S. President Ronald Reagan publicly challenges Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall.
1990 – Russia Day: The parliament of the Russian Federation formally declares its sovereignty.
1994 – Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Lyle “Ron” Goldman are murdered outside Simpson’s home in Los Angeles.
1997 – Queen Elizabeth II reopens the Globe Theatre in London.
1999 – Kosovo War: Operation Joint Guardian begins when a NATO-led United Nations peacekeeping force (KFor) enters the province of Kosovo in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
2016 – Forty-nine civilians are killed and 53 others injured in an attack on a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida; the gunman, Omar Mateen, was killed in a gunfight with police.
1802 – Harriet Martineau, controversial journalist, political economist, abolitionist and life-long feminist (d. 1876)
1915 – David Rockefeller, American CEO (Chase Manhattan Bank) and philanthropist, born in Manhattan (d. 2017)
1924 – George H. W. Bush, 41st President ( 1989-93) and 43rd Vice President ( 1981-89)
1778 – Philip Livingston, American merchant (signed Declaration of Independence)
2003 – Gregory Peck, American actor (To Kill a Mockingbird, MacArthur)
Edited from various sources including historyorb.com, the NYTimes.com
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