AD 37 – Roman emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate.
193 – Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus.
1776 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco.
1814 – War of 1812: In the Battle of Valparaнso, two American naval vessels are captured by two Royal Navy vessels of equal strength.
1842 – First concert of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Otto Nicolai.
1854 – Crimean War: France and Britain declare war on Russia.
1871 – The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris.
1933 – The Imperial Airways biplane City of Liverpool is believed to be the first airliner lost to sabotage when a passenger sets a fire on board.
1939 – Spanish Civil War: Franco conquers Madrid after a three-year siege.
1968 – Brazilian high school student Edson Luнs de Lima Souto is killed by military police at a protest for cheaper meals at a restaurant for low-income students.
1979 – A coolant leak at the Three Mile Island’s Unit 2 nuclear reactor outside Harrisburg, Pennsylvania leads to the core overheating and a partial meltdown.
1483 – Raphael, Italian painter and architect (d. 1520)
1638 – Frederik Ruysch, Dutch botanist and anatomist (d. 1731)
1836 – Frederick Pabst, German-American brewer, founded the Pabst Brewing Company (d. 1904)
1868 – Maxim Gorky, novelist, short story writer, and playwright (d. 1936)
1878 – Abraham Walkowitz, Russian-American painter (d. 1965)
1914 – Edmund Muskie, 58th United States Secretary of State (d. 1996)
1928 – Zbigniew Brzezinski, 10th United States National Security Advisor (d. 2017)
1946 – Henry Paulson, American banker and politician, 74th United States Secretary of the Treasury
193 – Pertinax, Roman emperor (b. 126)
1584 – Ivan the Terrible, Russian king (b. 1530)
1941 – Virginia Woolf novelist, essayist, writer, and critic (b. 1882)
1943 – Sergei Rachmaninoff, pianist, composer, and conductor (b. 1873)
1953 – Jim Thorpe, American football player and coach (b. 1887)
1969 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, American general and 34th President of the United States (b. 1890)
1985 – Marc Chagall, Russian-French painter and poet (b. 1887)
1987 – Maria von Trapp, Austrian-American singer (b. 1905)
1994 – Eugиne Ionesco, Romanian-French playwright and critic (b. 1909)
2004 – Peter Ustinov, English-Swiss actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1921)
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