1806 – Convinced that he is facing a much larger force, Prussian General von Romberg, commanding 5,300 men, surrenders the city of Stettin to 800 French soldiers.
1831 – Nat Turner is arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.
1905 – Czar Nicholas II issues the October Manifesto, granting the Russian peoples basic civil liberties and the right to form a duma. This occurs on October 17 in the Julian calendar.
1938 – Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, causing anxiety in some of the audience in the United States.
1941 – President Roosevelt approves $1 billion dollars in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.
1944 – Anne and Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they die from disease the following year, shortly before the end of WWII.
1945 – Jackie Robinson of the Kansas City Monarchs signs a contract for the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking the baseball color line.
1961 – Due to “violations of Vladimir Lenin’s precepts”, it is decreed that Joseph Stalin’s body be removed from inside Lenin’s tomb and buried nearby with a plain marker instead.
1983 – The first democratic elections in Argentina, after seven years of military rule, are held.
1995 – Quebec citizens narrowly vote – 50.58% to 49.42% – in favor of remaining a province of Canada in their second referendum on national sovereignty.
2014 – Sweden is the first European Union member state to officially recognize the State of Palestine.
Last portrait of John Adams, 1823
1941 – Otis Williams, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Temptations)
2007 – Washoe, a common chimpanzee who was the first non-human who learned to communicate using American Sign Language. Washoe taught her adopted son some of the 350 signs she knew. (b. 1965)