1066 – William the Conqueror and his army set sail from the mouth of the River Somme, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
1540 – The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) receives its charter from Pope Paul III.
1590 – Pope Urban VII dies 13 days after being elected the Pope, making his reign the shortest papacy in history.
1825 – The world’s first public railway to use steam locomotives, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, is opened.
1854 – The steamship SS Arctic sinks with 300 people on board. This marks the first great disaster in the Atlantic Ocean.
1908 – The first production of the Ford Model T was built at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit, Michigan.
1928 – The Republic of China is recognized by the United States.
1938 – Ocean liner Queen Elizabeth launched in Glasgow.
1941 – The SS Patrick Henry is launched becoming the first of more than 2,700 Liberty ships.
1954 – The nationwide debut of the Tonight Show starring Steve Allen
1962 – Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring is published, inspiring an environmental movement and the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
1996 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city Kabul after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.
1998 – The Google internet search engine retrospectively claims this as its birthday.
1544 – Takenaka Shigeharu, Japanese samurai (d. 1579)
1601 – Louis XIII of France (d. 1643)
1840 – Thomas Nast, German-American cartoonist (d. 1902)
1896 – Sam Ervin, American soldier and politician (d. 1985)
1922 – Arthur Penn, American director and producer (d. 2010)
1929 – Calvin Jones, American pianist, composer, and educator (d. 2004)
1942 – Dith Pran, Cambodian photographer and journalist (d. 2008)
1966 – Debbie Wasserman Schultz, American politician
1735 – Peter Artedi, Swedish ichthyologist and zoologist (b. 1705) Ichthyology also known as fish science, is the branch of biology devoted to the study of fish. This includes bony fishes (Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), and jawless fish (Agnatha).
1917 – Edgar Degas, French painter and sculptor (b. 1834