1582 – In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay a £40 bond for their marriage licence.
1785 – The first Treaty of Hopewell is signed, by which the United States acknowledges Cherokee lands in what is now East Tennessee.
1811 – Beethoven’s Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73, premieres at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig.
1814 – The Times of London becomes the first newspaper to be produced on a steam-powered printing press, built by the German team of Koenig & Bauer.
1843 – The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
1895 – The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago’s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.
1914 – Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
1943 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran, Iran, to discuss war strategy.
The Big Three at the Tehran Conference
1972 – Claude Buffet and Roger Bontems are the last to be guillotined at La Santé Prison.
1950 – Russell Alan Hulse, American physicist and astronomer, Nobel Prize laureate who attended the Bronx High School of Union and Cooper Union.
1960 – Richard Wright, American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet (b. 1908)