1538 – Pope Paul III excommunicates Henry VIII of England.
1777 – France formally recognizes the United States.
1790 – The Aztec calendar stone is discovered at El Zócalo, Mexico City.
1812 – War of 1812: U.S. forces attack a Lenape village in the Battle of the Mississinewa.
1835 – The second Great Fire of New York destroys 50 acres (200,000 square meters) of New York City’s Financial District.
1862 – General Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order No. 11, expelling Jews from parts of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.
1903 – The Wright brothers make the first controlled powered, heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1938 – Otto Hahn discovers the nuclear fission of the heavy element uranium, the scientific and technological basis of nuclear energy.
1943 – All Chinese are again permitted to become citizens of the United States upon the repeal of the Act of 1882 and the introduction of the Magnuson Act.
1951 – The American Civil Rights Congress delivers We Charge Genocide to the United Nations.
1969 – Project Blue Book: The United States Air Force closes its study of UFOs.
A stamp from a series for Nobel laureates of physics and chemistry celebrates Otto Hahn
1989 – The Simpsons first premieres on television with the episode “Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire”.
2010 – Mohamed Bouazizi sets himself on fire. This act became the catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution and the wider Arab Spring.
2014 – The United States and Cuba re-establish diplomatic relations after severing them in 1960.
1900 – Mary Cartwright, English mathematician and academic, one of the first people to analyze a dynamical system with chaos (d. 1998)