69 – The Roman Senate declares Vespasian emperor of Rome, the last in the Year of the Four Emperors.
1361 – The Battle of Linuesa is fought in the context of the Spanish Reconquista between the forces of the Emirate of Granada and the combined army of the Kingdom of Castile and of Jaén resulting in a Castilian victory.
1620 – William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
1913 – Arthur Wynne’s “word-cross”, the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.
1937 – Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the world’s first full-length animated feature, premieres at the Carthay Circle Theatre.
1965 – International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is adopted.
1967 – Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo a human-to-human heart transplant, dies in Cape Town, South Africa, having lived for 18 days after the transplant.
1968 – Apollo 8 is launched from the Kennedy Space Center, placing its crew on a lunar trajectory for the first visit to another celestial body by humans.
1973 – The Geneva Conference on the Arab-Israeli conflict opens.
1890 – Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist and biologist, Nobel Prize laureate born in New York City and is remembered for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation and speaking out against nuclear war (d. 1967)
1940 – F. Scott Fitzgerald, American novelist and short story writer (b. 1896)
2017 – Bruce McCandless II, US astronaut who conducted the first untethered spacewalk (b. 1937)
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