1540 – The Jesuit Society of Jesus receives its charter from Pope Paul III.
1590 – Pope Urban VII dies thirteen days after being chosen as the Pope, making his reign the shortest papacy in history.
1825 – The world’s first public railway to use steam locomotives, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, is opened.
1854 – The steamship SS Arctic sinks with three hundred people on board. This marks the first great disaster in the Atlantic Ocean.
1908 – The first production of the Ford Model T automobile was built at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit, Michigan.
1938 – Ocean liner Queen Elizabeth launched in Glasgow.
1941 – The SS Patrick Henry is launched becoming the first of more than 2,700 Liberty ships. This class of cargo ship was mass produced on an unprecedented scale thereby becoming a symbol of U.S. wartime industrial output.
1954 – The nationwide debut of Tonight Starring Steve Allen, later to become the Tonight Show, is hosted by Steve Allen on NBC.
1962 – Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring, is published, inspiring an environmental movement and the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
1996 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city Kabul after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.
1998 – The Google internet search engine retrospectively claims this as its birthday.
Musicians in the Orchestra
by Edgar Degas
1601 – Louis XIII of France (d. 1643)
1840 – Thomas Nast, German-American cartoonist (d. 1902)
1922 – Arthur Penn, American director and producer (d. 2010)
1929 – Calvin Jones, American pianist, composer, and educator (d. 2004)
1942 – Dith Pran, Cambodian photographer and journalist (d. 2008)
1917 – Edgar Degas, French painter and sculptor (b. 1834)