Today in History ~ July 25
306 – Constantine I is proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops.
1261 – The city of Constantinople is recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.
1467 – The Battle of Molinella: The first battle in Italy in which firearms are used extensively.
1609 – The English ship Sea Venture, en route to Virginia, is deliberately driven ashore during a storm at Bermuda to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony there.
1788 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completes his Symphony No. 40 in G minor (K550).
1792 – The Brunswick Manifesto is issued to the population of Paris promising vengeance if the French royal family is harmed.
1861 – American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution, stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.
1866 – Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army. Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank.
1868 – The Wyoming Territory is established.
1898 – In the Puerto Rican Campaign, the United States seizes Puerto Rico from Spain.
1917 – Sir Robert Borden introduces the first income tax in Canada as a “temporary” measure (lowest bracket is 4% and highest is 25%).
1946 – Nuclear weapons testing: Operation Crossroads: An atomic bomb is detonated underwater in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll.
1956 – Forty-five miles south of Nantucket Island, the Italian ocean liner SS Andrea Doria collides with the MS Stockholm in heavy fog and sinks the next day, killing 51.
1965 – Bob Dylan goes electric at the Newport Folk Festival, signaling a major change in folk and rock music.
1976 – Viking program: Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.
1978 – Birth of Louise Joy Brown, the first human to have been born after conception by in vitro fertilisation, or IVF.
1984 – Salyut 7 cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskayabecomes the first woman to perform a space walk.
1562 – Katō Kiyomasa, Japanese warlord (d. 1611)
1750 – Henry Knox, First US Secretary of War (d. 1806)
1844 – Thomas Eakins, painter, sculptor, and photographer (d. 1916)
1870 – Maxfield Parrish, American painter and illustrator (d. 1966)
1915 – Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., American lieutenant and pilot (d. 1944)
1956 – Andy Goldsworthy, English-Scottish sculptor and photographer
1011 – Ichijō, emperor of Japan (b. 980)
1790 – William Livingston, First Governor of New Jersey (b. 1723)
1966 – Frank O’Hara, American poet and critic (b. 1926)
1989 – Steve Rubell, co-owner of Studio 54 (b. 1943)
Sourced from various internet sites.
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