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1097 – First Crusade: Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch. 1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan. 1600 – Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks […]

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1720 – Caribbean pirate ‘Calico Jack’ is captured by the Royal Navy. John “Jack” Rackham was born the day after Christmas in 1682 and was known as ‘Calico Jack’ after the clothing he often wore. He was active during the “Golden Age of Piracy” which lasted from 1650 to 1730 ( And of course, is […]

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202 BC – Second Punic War: At the Battle of Zama, Roman legions under Scipio Africanus defeat Hannibal Barca, leader of the army defending Carthage. 439 – The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa. 1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry. […]

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320 – Pappus of Alexandria, Greek philosopher, observes an eclipse of the Sun and writes a commentary on The Great Astronomer. 1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church’s foundations down to bedrock. 1081 – The […]

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1091 – London tornado of 1091: A tornado thought to be of strength T8/F4 strikes the heart of London. 1558 – Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, is founded. 1604 – Kepler’s Supernova: German astronomer Johannes Kepler observes a supernova in the constellation Ophiuchus. 1610 – French king Louis XIII is crowned in Reims Cathedral. […]

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1066 – Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings: In England on Senlac Hill, seven miles from Hastings, the Norman forces of William the Conqueror defeat the English army and kill King Harold II of England. 1322 – Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland’s independence. […]

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539 BC – The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. 1492 – Christopher Columbus’s expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached the Indies. 1654 – The Delft Explosion devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100 people. 1692 – The Salem […]

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1138 – A massive earthquake strikes Aleppo, Syria. 1614 – Adriaen Block and 12 Amsterdam merchants petition the States General for exclusive trading rights in the New Netherland colony. 1809 – Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder’s Stand. 1811 – Inventor
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1571 – The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Holy League (Spain and Italy) annihilates the Turkish fleet. 1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain. 1691 – The English royal charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued. 1763 – […]

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23 – Rebels kill and decapitate the Xin dynasty emperor Wang Mang two days after the capital Chang’an is sacked during a peasant rebellion. 1539 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his army enter the Apalachee capital of Anhaica (present-day Tallahassee, Florida) by force. 1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, […]