1775 – King George III of Great Britain goes before Parliament to declare the American colonies in rebellion, and authorizes a military response to quell the American Revolution.
1776 – Benjamin Franklin departs from America for France on a mission to seek French support for the American Revolution.
1825 – The Erie Canal opens, connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, taking advantage of the natural pathway between the Catskills and Adirondacks. The canal enabled New York to become the home port for the entire Midwest and the city to develop as an international trade center. Due to this connectivity, New York became known as the Empire State.
1861 – The Pony Express officially ceases operations.
1909 – Itō Hirobumi, four time Prime Minister of Japan – the first, fifth, seventh and tenth – and Resident-General of Korea, is assassinated by An Jung-geun at the Harbin train station in Manchuria.
1936 – The first electric generator at Hoover Dam goes into full operation.
1958 – Pan American Airways makes the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707 from New York City to Paris, France.
1977 – Ali Maow Maalin, the last natural case of smallpox, develops rash in Merca district, Somalia. The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention consider this date the anniversary of the eradication of smallpox.
Benjamin Franklin, with help from his fur hat, charmed the French as a rustic New World genius
1979 – Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea is assassinated by Korean Central Intelligence Agency head Kim Jae-gyu. Choi Kyu-hah becomes the acting President and Kim is executed the following May.
2001 – The United States passes the USA PATRIOT Act into law.
1920 – Sarah Lee Lippincott, American astronomer and academic
1935 – Gloria Conyers Hewitt, American mathematician and academic
1957 – Gerty Cori, Czech-American biochemist and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1896)