356 – Emperor Constantius II issues a decree closing all pagan temples in the Roman Empire.
1674 – England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. A provision of the agreement transfers the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam to England, and it is renamed New York.
1807 – Former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is arrested for treason in Wakefield, Alabama and confined to Fort Stoddert.
1878 – Thomas Edison patents the phonograph.
1884 – More than sixty tornadoes strike the Southern United States, one of the largest tornado outbreaks in U.S. history.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs executive order 9066, allowing the United States military to relocate Japanese Americans to internment camps.
1963 – The publication of Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique reawakens the feminist movement in the United States as women’s organizations and consciousness raising groups spread.
1985 – William J. Schroeder becomes the first recipient of an artificial heart to leave the hospital.
2002 – NASA’s Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.
1473 – Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish mathematician and astronomer (d. 1543)
1876 – Constantin Brâncuși, Romanian-French sculptor, painter, and photographer (d. 1957)
1896 – André Breton, French poet and author (d. 1966)
1917 – Carson McCullers, novelist, playwright, and essayist (d. 1967)
1414 – Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1353)
1709 – Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese shōgun (b. 1646)
1997 – Deng Xiaoping, First Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China (b. 1904)
2016 – Umberto Eco, Italian novelist, literary critic, and philosopher (b. 1932)
2016 – Harper Lee, American author (b. 1926)
2019 – Karl Lagerfeld, German fashion designer (b. 1933)