1545 – The Tudor warship Mary Rose sinks off Portsmouth. In 1982 the wreck is salvaged in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology.
1553 – Lady Jane Grey is replaced by Mary I as Queen of England after only nine days on the throne.
1588 – The Spanish Armada is sighted in the English Channel.
1701 – Representatives of the Iroquois Confederacy sign the Nanfan Treaty, ceding a large territory north of the Ohio River to England.
1817 – Georg Anton Schaffer is unsuccessful in his attempt to conquer Hawaii for Russia.
1843 – Brunel’s steamship the SS Great Britain is launched, becoming the first ocean-going craft with an iron hull and screw propeller, and the largest vessel afloat in the world.
1845 – Great New York City Fire of 1845 killed four firefighters, 26 civilians, and destroyed 345 buildings.
1848 – A two-day Women’s Rights Convention opens in Seneca Falls, NY.
1943 – In World War II, Rome is heavily bombed by more than 500 Allied aircraft, inflicting thousands of casualties.
1976 – Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal is created.
1977 – The world’s first Global Positioning System signal was transmitted from Navigation Technology Satellite 2 and received in Cedar Rapids at 12:41am ET
1979 – Sandinista rebels overthrow the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua.
1979 – The oil tanker SS Atlantic Empress collides with another oil tanker, causing the largest ever ship-borne oil spill.
1981 – In a private meeting with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French President Francois Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing the Soviet Union had been stealing American technological research and development.
2014 – Gunmen in Egypt’s western desert province of New Valley Governorate attack a military checkpoint, killing at least 21 soldiers. Egypt reportedly declares a state of emergency on its border with Sudan.
2019 – UK oil tanker Stena Impero seized by Iranian Revolutionary Guard in the Strait of Hormuz
2019 – Largest wind farm in Africa opens at Lake Turkana, Kenya, generating 310 megawatts
810 – Muhammad al-Bukhari, Persian scholar (d. 870)
1223 – Baibars, sultan of Egypt (d. 1277)
1759 – Seraphim of Sarov, Russian monk and saint (d. 1833)
1865 – Charles Horace Mayo, surgeon, founded the Mayo Clinic (d. 1939)
1860 – Lizzie Borden, woman tried and acquitted for the murders of her parents in 1892 (d. 1927)
1868 – Florence Foster Jenkins, soprano and educator (d. 1945)
1894 – Percy Spencer, physicist and inventor of the microwave oven (d. 1969)
1895 – Xu Beihong, Chinese painter and academic (d. 1953)
1946 – Ilie Năstase, Romanian tennis player and politician
1947 – Brian May, English singer-songwriter, guitarist, producer, astrophysicist
1956 – Mark Crispin, computer scientist, designed the IMAP (d. 2012)
1970 – Nicola Sturgeon, Scottish lawyer and politician, First Minister of Scotland
1976 – Benedict Cumberbatch, actor
1249 – Jacopo Tiepolo, doge of Venice
1374 – Petrarch, Italian poet and scholar (b. 1304)
1943 – Yekaterina Budanova, Russian captain and pilot (b. 1916)
2012 – Sylvia Woods, businesswoman, co-founded Sylvia’s Restaurant of Harlem (b. 1926)
2019 – César Pelli, architect (Petronas Towers, World Financial Center [now Brookfield Place), dies at 92