54 – Emperor Claudius is poisoned to death under mysterious circumstances. His 17-year-old stepson Nero succeeds him.
1307 – Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of Phillip the Fair, to be later tortured into a “confession” of heresy.
1773 – The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier.
1792 – In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.
1884 – The International Meridian Conference votes on a resolution to establish the meridian passing through the Observatory of Greenwich, in London, England, as the initial meridian for longitude.
1892 – Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13-14.
1923 – Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.
1962 – The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Cat 3 hurricane. Winds measured above 150 mph; 46 people died.
1976 – The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle is obtained by Dr. F. A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, who was then working at the C.D.C.
2010 – The Copiapó mining accident in Copiapó, Chile comes to an end as all 33 miners arrive at the surface after surviving a record 69 days underground awaiting rescue.
1162 – Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile (d. 1214)
1862 – Mary Kingsley, English explorer and author (d. 1900)
1909 – Art Tatum, American pianist (d. 1956)
1921 – Yves Montand, Italian-French actor and singer (d. 1991)
1925 – Lenny Bruce, American comedian and social critic (d. 1966)
1925 – Margaret Thatcher, English lawyer and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 2013)
1926 – Killer Kowalski, Canadian-American wrestler (d. 2008)
1941 – Paul Simon, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
54 – Claudius, Roman emperor (b. 10 BC)
1974 – Ed Sullivan, American journalist and talk show host (b. 1901)